Threat actors, whether individuals or groups, pose a significant risk through cyberattacks. The primary categories include cybercriminals, foreign military and intelligence services, terrorist groups, and hacktivists.
Cybercriminals focus on financial gain through phishing, data theft, and ransomware, often providing specialized services on the Dark Web. Their activities threaten not only finances but also the stability of state institutions.
Foreign military and intelligence services wield their expertise to cause economic damage, incite political instability, and weaken defenses. Their increasingly sophisticated capabilities make detection and prevention challenging.
Hacktivists employ cyber tactics to advance political, religious, or social causes, using methods such as doxing, DDoS, web defacement, and unauthorized takeover of identities and social media accounts.
Cyberterrorism involves violent online activities to achieve political goals through fear and intimidation, targeting public services, industries, and critical infrastructures. Terrorist groups also exploit the internet for propaganda and recruitment, raising concerns about future cyberattacks.